WATCHKEEPING QUESTIONS & ANSWERS PART-2

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Q. List the action to be taken by the Engineer Officer of the Watch to assure safe passage of the vessel through an area of heavy weather.

  • Make sure that no loose items in the E/R, every thing should be secured.
  • Maintain the oil tanks level & make sure that no water or sludge of the service tanks.
  • Air bottle must be pressurised.
  • Deck plating must be clean &  free from oil .
  • Check the standby machinery should be ready &  in auto mode.
  • M/E &  A/E sumps level should not be minimum.
  • Check that low sea suction should be open.
  • Keep standby filter for all F.O. &  L.O. line.
  • Check that water tight doors are kept closed.

Q. The water level in the E/R bilge is rising faster than can be contained by the bilge pump

(A). Describe the  action that the Engineer Officer of the Watch should take.

  • Inform the bridge, Chief Engineer, raise the general alarm & summon for assistance.
  • Set the line for Emergency Bilge Injection System.
  • Start the pump & check whether level of bilges is reducing or not.
  • Once make sure  that  bilge  injection  system is working effectively, try to locate the leakage & temporarily arrest it to minimise or stop increasing of water.
  • Monitor  the  level  of  water  & as the water is reducing in bilges, open the sea suction valve, so that pump will not loose suction.
  • Once confirm  that  all  water  has been removed & there is no further leakage, stop the pump & close the valve.
  • Enter in Oil Record Book(ORB) the operation carried out stating the reasons, Start & End Time.

(B). What features are provided in the E/R pumping systems to deal with the situation outlined in question (a).

There is provision of Emergency Bilge Injection System to pump out E/R bilges directly overboard in event of the emergency such as flooding.

Q. With reference to the disposal of the bilge water from the machinery spaces:

(A). Explain  when it is not  permissible  to  discharge  the  bilge  water overboard, even via an oily water separator(OWS).

It is not permissible to discharge the bilge water overboard, even via an oily water separator

  • When the vessel is not en-route.
  • If oil content in water is more then 15 PPM.
  • In special area (Antarctic).
  • Bilges should not originate from the cargo pump room.

(B). State the maximum permissible oil content of the overboard discharge.

15 PPM.

(C). Identify the document to be completed & state by whom, follow such an operation.

Every operation should be entered in Oil Record Book.

Completed operation should be filled by officer or officers in charge of the operation concern &  each completed page shall be signed by the Master..

Q. As the Engineer Officer of the watch, explain how to safety carry out the complete bunkering operation of the ship.

  • Bunker plan complete.
  • Check onboard communication satisfactory.
  • Overflow tank empty.
  • Deck scupper & drip tray plugged.
  • No smoking notice & SOPEP equipment positioned.
  • Barge mooring secured.
  • Hose connected & sealed securely.
  • Red flag or light at mast head.
  • Check communication with barge satisfactory.
  • Check barge paper work for the grade, temperature & density.
  • Confirm the pumping rate.
  • All appropriate filling valves are opened.
  • Open manifold valve.
  • Take sounding periodically.
  • Once bunker is completed, take final sounding and keep the bunker sample at designated place.

Q. As Engineer Officer of the Watch, state the precaution to be taken against spillage, when taking bunkers.

  • All scupper on the main deck & oil drip tray should be closed.
  • All F.O. Tanks vent should be cleared (should not struck of non return valve).
  • Should keep SOPEP nearest to the bunker point.
  • Communication between ship & bunker barge should be clear.
  • Bunker hose should be lashed properly.
  • Should be maintain the bunker filling pressure.
  • Frequently check the sounding of the bunker tanks.
  • All personnel should know their duties in the case of oil spillage.
  • Emergency stop signal between ship & bunker barge should be know in case of oil spillage.

Q. Describe the conditions that must be satisfied before paralleling an a.c. generator with the main electrical switchboard. For each condition described explain how it is achieved.

For paralleling an a.c. generator 3 condition has to be satisfied:

Frequency of generator same as the bus bar frequency.

Frequency of the generator is controlled by speed control lever which controls the governor thus maintaining equal frequency with the bus bar frequency.

Voltage has to be same.

Voltage is controlled by the AVR ie. Automatic Voltage Regulator is automatically regulates the exciter field current thus comparing the generator terminal set voltage ie. 440 V.

In phase.

To ensure machines are in same phase, Synchroscope is a device which monitors the incoming machine phase & breaker is closed as needle reaches 5 min before 12’O clock.

Q. Describe the procedure for running up &  paralleling an alternator onboard.

  • Change the switch from auto to manual mode on switchboard for the generator that is to be run.
  • Check all oil levels, expansion tank level, & drain the starting air line.
  • Open the indicator cocks & bar the engine with starting air line valve shut & lubricating oil priming pump running.
  • Change the position of the lever from run to stop & keep turning bar in proper position.
  • Open air starting line v/v & blow through the engine on air. Make sure no fluids are coming from the indicator cocks.
  • Close the indicator cocks, move the lever to run position & start the engine.
  • Check all the parameters for correct pressure & temperature.

Q. Describe how to manually couple a second auxiliary generator to  main switchboard & balance out the load.

  • Check all parameters of the incoming generator are adequate.
  • Put the selector switch to incoming generator.
  • Check the frequency must be same as bus-bar frequency.
  • Check the voltage should be same as the bus-bar voltage.
  • Use synchroscope to see that voltage are in phase.
  • Synchroscope pointer should rotate slowly in the clockwise direction.
  • When the pointer is 5 minute to 12 o’ close the ACB of the incoming generator.
  • Switch off the synchroscope.
  • To share the lode equally, raise the governor (Speed Control) of the incoming generator &  lower the running generator simultaneously until both the generators are sharing equal load.
  • Check again all the parameters for both generators.

Q. A large  diesel a.c. generator  currently in service is due for the routine overhaul. As Engineer Officer of the Watch, explain the precautions to be taken:

(A). When taking the a.c. generator off electrical load.

When taking the a.c. generator off electrical load:

  • Inform the Bridge, chief engineer & officer of the watch.
  • Make sure that running generator has adequate load capacity to take load from that generator which is to be off load, or,
  • Start the other standby generator & take it on load.
  • If possible try to decrease loads by switching off the machine whine are not essentials and put a notice.
  • Once sure that loads are being shared equally by the generators.
  • Off the generator & open the ACB.

(B). When isolating the machine in order that work may be carried out.

When isolating the machine in order that work may be safely carried out:

  • Do the risk assessment & follow isolation procedure according to the checklist.
  • At the switchboard take out the generator from standby mode.
  • Tag & lock the system &  display warning notice.
  • At the generator platform, put the fuel lever to stop position.
  • Shut the air starting line valve &  keep the drain valve open.

Q. Describe the procedure for the starting an air compressor in the manual mode.

  • Change switch to the manual mode.
  • Check the L.O. Sump Level.
  • Assure that the inter stage drains & unloader are open.
  • Open Compressor discharge valve.
  • Open Air bottle filling valve.
  • Open cooling water system.
  • Turn the compressor flywheel by hand ( check for its freeness).
  • Start the motor, after draining close the Drain & Unloader valve.
  • Check the pressure & temperature readings.
  • Once air bottle will full with required pressure, open Drain & Unloader valve.
  • Stop the compressor.

Q. (A).  Outline  the  data  which  should  be  entered  in the Oil Record Book.

Following data should be entered after any operation has been carried out:

  • Date of operation.
  • Operational code.
  • Item Number.
  • Position of ship.
  • Start and finished time.
  • Total quantity discharge or disposal off in cubic meter.
  • Identification of tank.
  • Capacity of tank.

Operation should be entered:

  • Oily water separator operation.
  • Bunker of Fuel or Lubricating oil.
  • Incinerated sludge.
  • Sludge disposal to shore connection.
  • Tank to tank transfer.

(B). Outline the conditions which must be complied with for the discharge of oily water from the machinery spaces.

  • Vessel should be enroute.
  • Overboard water should be 15 PPM.
  • Should not be in special area (Antarctic Sea).
  • Should have certified Oily Water Separator.

Q. State the actions the Engineer Officer of the Watch would take on discovering unexpected high level bilge in both port & starboard bilge wells.

  • Take initial sounding of the bilge tank.
  • Start the bilge pump & pump into the bilge holding tank.
  • Check the cause for raising the bilges.
  • If it is small leakage, try to rectify it.
  • If it is major leakage, Inform the bridge, Chief Engineer, raise the general alarm &  summon for assistance.
  • Set the line for the Emergency Bilge Injection System.
  • Start the pump & check whether level of bilges is reducing or not.
  • Once make sure  that  bilge  injection  system is working effectively, try to locate the leakage & temporarily arrest it to minimise or stop increasing of water.
  • Monitor  the  level  of  water  & as the water is reducing in bilges, open the sea suction valve, so that pump will not loose suction.
  • Once confirm  that  all  water  has been removed & there is no further leakage, stop the pump & close the v/v.
  • Enter in Oil Record Book the operation carried out stating the reasons, Start and End Time.

Q.(A). As Engineer Officer  of  the  Watch  explain the safety issues to be considered when large quantities of the fuel oil are transferred from the double bottoms to storage tanks at a higher level in the ship.

  • Inform Bridge, Chief Engineer & Chief Officer
  • Make sure, ships stability is not going to be affected adversely due to transfer of the oil.
  • It doesn’t produce a negative GM.
  • Use Walkie Talkies & maintain communication between Bridge duty Officer, Chief Engineer & Chief Officer.
  • Plan the quantity of the fuel oil that is to be transfer.
  • Take Sounding of the tanks & check all save all & trays are plugged.
  • Keep SOPEP equipments & fire fighting appliances ready.
  • Set the line & see that only suction valve of the double bottom tank & discharge valve of the respective tank which is to be filled is open & rest all valves are closed & place a tag on them.
  • Double check the all valve & check that every thing is ok.
  • Before starting the transfer pump, inform Duty Officer, C/E & C/O that transfer is going to be started.
  • Once order are received, start the transfer pump & check the pump pressure.
  • Check the sounding of the double bottom tank as well the tank which is filling.
  • Once sure that oil is being transfer to the right tank, inform C/E.

(B). State who should be informed before commencement of the fuel oil transfer.

Chief Engineer & Chief Officer.

(C). State the document to be used after the transfer of fuel oil in Q (a).

Oil Record Book.

Q. (A). State four conditions to be complied with before the discharge of oily water from machinery spaces.

  • Inform bridge, C/E, asked permission, position of the vessel.
  • Vessel should be en-route.
  • Oily water should be passed through approved oily water separator & oil content monitor with 15 PPM.
  • If oil content exceeds 15 PPM there should be an alarm system & discharge overboard  should be automatically stopped.
  • Discharge is prohibited in special areas ( Antarctica).
  • Bilges should not originate from the cargo pump rooms.

Q.(A). If no testing equipment was available. Explain how the condition of the lubricating oil could be assessed onboard.

If no test equipment is available onboard, lubricating oil conditions can be determined by few simple tests:

Crackle Test For Water: This is where a sample of the lube oil is taken & placed in test tube, the test tube is then heated, any water droplets will make a crackling noise due to the formation of the bubbles. This will detect only small amount of water. For large amount of water, a simple settling test can be used.

TBN: TBN can be tested by placing a drop of  indicator solution on to the blotting paper. This being followed by drop of sample lub oil in the contact of the blotting paper. A colour change should take place around the surrounding area of the drop ie. The colour red shows acid in present, green/blue show alkaline presence.

Q. Enumerate the important action to be taken by the engineer officer of the watch in the event of an alarm condition activated on the oil mist detector.

  • Inform bridge & C/E.
  • Reduce speed & stop (stop aux blower)
  • Evacuate from the E/R
  • Let them cool down it self at least 30 mints
  • Keep fire fighting equipments ready
  • Open indicator cock and engage the turning gear
  • increase the cylinder lubrication (to prevent the piston seizer)
  • Open crankcase door, follow the safe entry procedure.
  • Check any white metal or hot spot from the crankcase.

Q. State the action to be taken by the engineer officer of the watch, to prepare a main propulsion diesel engine plant from cold condition to that of a condition ready for manoeuvring.

  • Start L.O. Purifier warm up the system.
  • Start ME L.O PUMP circulation warm up the lubricating parts.
  • Line up J.W system; start me JCW pump circulation through the pre Heater to warm up at 60* cent for minimum 6hrs.
  • Start F.O system, maintained the temp to warm up.
  • Check all F.O., L.O. tanks level and drain water.
  • Open indicator cocks and engage turning gear.
  • Turn the engine on turning gear while operating cylinder lubricator manually.
  • Disengage the turning gear.
  • Ensure air compressor on auto mode and drain the air bottle.
  • Open air starting valve, and auto air starting valve.
  • Inform bridge and telegraph test carried out.
  • Blow through the engine ensure there is any fluids coming from the Indicator cock and close the indicator cock.
  • Try out engine both ahead and astern direction.
  • Inform bride that the engine is ready for manoeuvring.

Q.  With reference to Shutting down a main propulsion diesel engine plant, after a deep voyage:

(A). State  the  action  to be  taken  by  the  Engineer Officer of the Watch when transferring from Bridge Control to Engine Room Control just prior to shut down.

  • Communicate the charge of command intensions with the ECR, then set the telegraph handle in the ECR to match the engine rpm.
  • Press the command push button then  engine room from the bridge. The lamp flashes and buzzer sounds.
  • The command position Bridge control lamp continues with a steady light.
  • In the ECR console, change the control position switch from Bridge control to Engine Room control.
  • The Engine Room control lamp will turn to a steady light and the bridge control lamp will extinguish.
  • The engine now can be control from the Engine Room.

(B). State FOUR precaution to be taken after shutdown, in order to ready the main engine for maintenance,

  • Open indicator cocks.
  • Shut the starting air valve to distributor, control air, spring air and safety air valve.
  • Engage the turning gear.
  • Engine crankcase door should not be opened for 30 minutes after shutdown and let the lubricating oil pump to be kept running to cool down the engine.
  • After 30 minutes, stop the LO pump and if all is ok, main engine is ready for maintenance.

Q.  With reference to shutting down a main propulsion diesel engine plant, after a deep sea voyage

(A).  State the actions to be taken by the Engineer Officer of the Watch when transferring from Bridge Control to Engine Room Control just prior to shut down.

1. The speed setting lever can take to 0 positions.

2. When finish with engine is given from bridge (beep sound is indication in control room).

3.  It is acknowledge in the engine control room (finish with engine push button)

4. When the selector switch is changed from bridge control to engine control room (indication in engine control room)

5. Note down in the bell book along with the time and date.

Q.  Describe  the procedure  to change the fuel  supply  of  the main propulsion engine from high viscosity fuel to low viscosity fuel such as gas oil for manoeuvring purposes.

The method of changing over from HFO to DO will vary from vessel to vessel but a common method is the use of a mixing chamber where-by the viscosity of the fuel is “sensed” by the viscometer and the heat is automatically removed from the heater as the DO filters through the system on its wav to the fuel oil rail to cool gradually and prevent the shock to the materials of the engine block etc.

Fuel supplied to motor vessels is usually of the high viscosity type. This kind of fuel is a blend of low-viscosity distillate and high viscosity residual oils. The bunker supplier has tables which give the proportional amounts of each kind of oil required to obtain some specified viscosity. After the proportions have been established the blend is produced by using two pumps arranged to discharge into a common pipe. The size of the pipe is such that turbulent flow takes place and the two types of oil become will mixed. The speed of the two pumps is set so that the proportion of each kind of oil passing into the common discharge is maintained correctly. Distillates from one crude stock type do not always blend well with residuals from another. This occurs when the smaller part is not soluble in the larger part. If incompatible oils are used to produce a blended fuel precipitation will occur. This shows itself in the operation of the centrifugal purifiers which quickly fill with asphaltic material and extreme difficulty may be experienced in maintaining an adequate throughput of fuel through the purifier for the requirements of the engine. This problem is well known to fuel oil suppliers and they take every care to blend compatible types of fuel. Normally fuels from different sources should not be mixed aboard ship. A blend that is compatible in itself may not be compatible with a blend from another origin and precipitation may occur.