During your vessel cruising at sea speed, it suddenly found that sparks coming out from funnels, discuss

(a)The danger of prolonged sparking and the immediate action you would take.

(b)The process you would take to verify the fault if you cannot restore the engine to normal operation.

(c) How will you continue the voyage to the next port of call?

(a) The danger of prolonged sparking

  • Sparking is indication of fire in waste heat recovery unit.
  • It is very important; soot fire become serious fire and lead to hydrogen fire if proper action is not taken.
  • Uptake fire extend to E/R, damage and leaking of exhaust gas boiler tubes.
  • Immediate action to be taken is
  • For small inconsiderable fire
  • For large considerable fire

(b) If engine cannot restore the operation

1. First check FO setting and service tank, for formation of too sludge or water.

2. If fuel used from tank, which contains different origins of fuel, change to other tank

3. Check fuel injection timing, fuel valve opening pressure, fuel temperature and quality

4. Check turbocharger condition, scavenging system, air cooler and exhaust system.

5. Check all unit piston rings condition through scavenge ports.

6. Above defects can affect best condition and spark occur,

7. Check boiler water circulating and control system.

8. Provide treatment and purification of fuel.

9. After rectifying all possible faults, start M/E again, gradually speed up.

10. If sparks are still coming out, change over to D.O and check the uptake again.

11. If sparks are slowly reduced, HFO quality is very poor.

(c) To continue the voyage to the next port of call

1. Drain out fuel oil from setting and service tanks.

2. Transfer fuel oil to settling tank from other D.B tank which stores only one origin of fuel.

3. Chemical dosing of service and settling tanks, sludge conditioner to D.B tank as per instruction.

4. All filters from system taken out and clean, use fine filter such as back wash filter.

5. Settle down, drain out frequently. purifier with min through output, max heating temperature by using purifier and clarifier in series.

6. After sufficient purification, change over to heavy oil system and check, no sparking coming out, remaining voyage continued.

7. If sparks still come out, try to use blending with D.O.

8. Inform head office about the present condition, procedure of continue to try, balance of diesel oil onboard.

Indication of uptake fire

1. Increase all unit exhaust temperature

2. Certain increase in steam pressure.

3. Spark emitted from funnel

4. Smoke smell in uptake

5. Sudden increase in uptake gas temperature

6. Overheating of external uptake casing

7. Flame visible in smoke indicator

As a Senior Engineer,

(a) What are the principles of Risk Assessments?

(b) Who has to carry out Risk Assessments?

(c) What are the processes of Risk Assessment Record?

(d) Describe the Risk Assessment of M.E. Bearing Keep taken out procedure?

(a) Principle of Risk assessment

  • Process of gathering information.
  • Understand of risk of a particular event.
  • Aim to minimize accidents and ill health on board ship.

(b) Risk assessments carry out

  • Individual employers responsibility for assessing risks to their workers.
  • Normally company instruct risk assessment duty to operation in-charge officers such as 2E for engine maintenance operations.

(c) Process of risk assessment record

1. Identify event/ hazard/ threat;

2. Frequency assessment

3. Severity of consequence assessment;

4. Risk evaluation;

5. Assess measures to reduce or eliminate the risk.

(d) The risk assessment of ME main bearing keep taken-out procedure

Hazard no. Description of Identified Hazards Existing control Measure to protect personnel from Harm
1. Injure to personnel due to unfamiliarity with task (a) All personnel to have read maintenance manual.
(b) Non-experienced personnel to assist competent staff
2. Engine turned while personnel in crankcase (a) Starting air lock off
(b) Turning gear engaged
3. Oxygen depletion in crankcase (a) Treat as enclosed space.
(b) Test Atmosphere
4. Combustible gases in crankcase (a) Test atmosphere
(b) No naked lights.
5. Injury to personnel whilst lifting heavy loads (a) PPE to be worn.
(b) Appropriate Lift gear to be provided.
6. Lifting gear falling while underload (a) All lifting gear within certification
(b) Inspect for visible sign of damage
7. Burning of personnel from hot engine (a) Allow engine to cool before entering the crankcase.
(b) PPE to be worn.
8. Slipping/falling into crankpit (a) Safety harness to be worn. (b) Non-slip shoes to be worn.

(a) What is risk assessment?

(b) Explain how a risk assessment would be conducted.

Principle of Risk assessment

Process of gathering information. Understand of risk of a particular event. Aim to minimize accidents and ill health on board ship.

b) (1) Classify work activities.

Identify nature of the job, job to be done, location of job, duration to do the job, persons to do the job etc.

(2) Identify hazards.

(a) Is there a source of harm?

(b) Who (or what) could be harmed?

(c) How could harm occur?

(d) What kind of hazards may harm? (Example: mechanical, electrical, radiation, fire and explosion etc.)

(3) Identify risk controls

  • Risk and hazard identification are important for the risk assessment. The required control measure to be taken to reduce the harms.
  • After identifying the risk, the following can be applied for control.
  • Eliminate hazards to clear the risks.
  • If elimination is not possible, try to reduce the risk.
  • Reduce the risk with procedures and safety systems of work.

4) Estimate risks

(a) The severity of harm (slight harm, moderate harm and Extreme harm).

(b) The likelihood of harm (Very likely, Likely, Unlikely, Very Unlikely).

(5) Determine tolerability of risks

To determine tolerability of risks (acceptable, tolerable or unacceptable), check result from risk estimator with “risk categorization table”.

(6) Prepare risk control action plan

  • After determined the significant risks, decide what action should be taken to improve safety, precautions and controls
  • By checking the result of risk estimation with “the simple risk-based control plan table”.

(7) Review adequacy of action plan

  • Before implementation, review any action plan to make sure that the revised control will lead to acceptable risk levels or new hazards
  • After conducting above process, if significant risk found to be acceptable or tolerable level, risk assessment complete.

As Senior Engineer,

(a) Describe the special requirements of steering gear for tanker of 10,000 GT and upwards and in every other ship of 70,000 gross tonnage and upwards?

(b) Sketch the steering system to fulfill the above requirement.

(c) Explain the operation of above steering system?

(a) In every tanker, chemical tanker of 10,000 GT and upwards, in every other ship of 70,000 GT and upwards,

1. Main steering gear have two or more power units.

2. Provided failure alarm of any power unit.

3. Steering power units operation automatically or manual from Navigation Bridge

4. Steering capability not more than 45 sec after loss of one power actuating system, single failure.

5. Loss of hydraulic fluid from one system capable of detected and

6. Defective system automatically isolated., other actuating system remain fully operational

(b) Automatic Fail Safe System (Safematic system)

(c) Operation of steering gear

Two systems are joined by isolating and by-pass valve, solenoid operated directional control valve.

In case of pipe burst or oil leaking defect,

  • 1st Oil Level Float Switch (S1) activates solenoid operated directional control valve, one pump switched off with its system isolated while other pump and its system running.
  • Detect, isolate and switch off defective system automatically within a few seconds.
  • If switch-off system is incorrect and leaking continues, Float switch (S2) activates, change over to correct pump with its hydraulic system automatically.
  • Ship’s steering capability is restored within 45 seconds.
  • Audible and visual alarms actuated at Bridge and Engine Control Room.

(a) State SOLAS regulations and requirements for steering gear.

(b) Explain steering gear survey.


1. Steering gear compartment separated from machinery spaces and readily assessable.

2. Every ship provided with main steering gear and auxiliary steering gear.

3. The failure of one of them must not render another one operation.

4. Relief valves fitted to any part of the hydraulic system.

5. Main steering gear and rudder stock shall be;

  • Capable of putting rudder hard over from 35˚ one side to 35˚ another side with the ship’s deepest seagoing draught and full sea speed, from 35˚ one side to 30˚ another side not more than 28 sec. They should be done at maximum astern speed as also.

6. The auxiliary steering gear shall be

  • Adequate strength and capable of steering the ship at navigational speed and could be brought into action in an emergency.
  • Capable of putting rudder from 15˚ one side to 15˚ another side with the ship’s deepest seagoing draught and speed not less than 7 knot, from 15˚ one side to 15˚ another side not more than 60 sec.

7. Rudder angle indicator shall be independent from steering gear control system.

8. Means of quick communication to be provided between Wheel house, E.R and Steering gear room.

9. System oil low level alarm, audible and visible, to be provided in Wheel house, E.R and steering room.

10. Fluid used must be approved type and non-freezing.

11. With stock diameter 230 mm and above, an alternative power supply, capable of providing within 45 sec automatically, must be provided. Its capacity shall be at least 30 minutes for the ship 10000 GT and above, and in any other ship for at least 10 min.

12. Electrical wiring system for steering gear shall be sized to accept 100 % load.

(b) Survey of steering gear system

Steering gear systems are subjected to annual survey, periodic survey and special survey under machinery items by classification society.

The following parts are to be surveyed not exceeding 2 years interval.

1. Fastening of steering gear, quadrants, tiller and rudder brake

2. Any leakage of hydraulic system

3. The motors with starters, control gears and electric cables

4. Insulation resistance test to motor and wiring system

5. Function test including emergency operation. Alarms test of safety arrangement such as;

(a) Oil level alarm

(b) Control voltage failure alarm

(c) Overload alarm

(d) Phase failure alarm

(a) what is in-water survey?

(b) Describe about the requirements for IWS.

(c) Preparations to get in-water survey notation.

(a) In-water survey is

Hull survey while ship is afloat done by authorized diving company with surveillance of Class surveyor as the replacement of docking survey.

(b) Requirements for IWS

1. age not greater than 15 years. ( Ships of age 15 years and over may be permitted as special consideration)

2. all ships excluding Enhanced Survey Program (ESP) ships, such as Bulk carrier, Oil tankers and Dangerous chemical bulk carriers of 15 years of age and over.

3. ship with class “IWS” notation.

4. need agreement of Flag administration.

5. high quality paint coating for 7.5 years extended dry docking (EDD).

6. fitted effective anodes, fitted effective current corrosion protection (ECCP).

7. access arrangements for – sea valves, rudder bearing & pintle clearance, stern tube wear down measurement, bow & stern thruster, seal checking

8. Documents- Survey plan, location and date of IWS, detail of hull marks and drawings

(c) Preparations in dry dock for IWS notation

1. fitted approved Cathodic protection system.

2. ship hull is in a satisfactory condition – shot blasted and painted with high quality paint

3. fitted means for renewal and/or measuring of clearances of

4. rudder bearings and bushes, stern tube wear down

5. measures for checking of sea valves and sea chests.

6. shell openings to be fitted gratings with hinged grid plates.

7. hull paint color – to assist divers for inspection of hull in next IWS.

8. mark clearly under-water hull fittings.

9. mark transverse & longitudinal bulkheads

10. mark tanks boundaries

11. mark openings of shell plating for sea valves, docking plugs, thruster unit, stabilizer fins

12. mark propeller blades with numbers

13. mark for checking of any relative movements in next IWS

  • liners on shaft
  • bushes of rudder and stern frame

14. drawings and folders containing above markings

15. agreed blanking methods of any shell openings

(a) What is the main objective of Load line survey?

(b)When are the Surveys, inspection and marking in Load line surveys carried out?

(c) As a senior engineer how do you prepare for Load line survey?

(a) Main objective of Load line survey

1. Limit in the freeboard of the ship,

2. External weather tight and water integrity design of the ship,

3. Principal of reserve buoyancy,

4. Adequate stability for the vessel,

5. Avoidance of excessive stress on the ship hull,

6. Potential hazards present in different zones and seasons.

(b) Initial survey: before ship is put into service e.g. newly built ship.

  • Periodic survey: at interval specified by the maritime Authority e.g annual survey, load line survey and through survey after 5 years on renewing the certificates
  • After the survey: No changes shall be made to structure, equipment etc without the authorization of the maritime administration.

(c) Preparation for Load Line Annual Survey:

1. Load line marks – to be verified with existing Load line certificate.

2. Coamings and closing appliances of hatchways, hatchways within superstructures – to be examined.

3. Holding-down clips/bolts are in good order; packing & seats are watertight.

4. Watertight steel hatch covers are to be hose-tested (pressure not less than 2 kg/cm2 from a distance of 1.5 m with 1/2 ” bore jet) for the water-tightness.

5. Spring-loaded battening-down wedges between covers, & holding down cleats – to be in good working condition.

6. Exposed engine casing & their openings, fiddley openings, ER skylights & their closing appliances – to be checked & tested. ER skylight to be able to close from the remote position.

7. Test Ventilators, check all flap levers are free, & locking pins are in place & secured by chain to ventilation casing.

8. Check air pipes & their closing means, flame traps for fuel oil tank’s air pipes are in order.

9. Watertight doors & closing arrangements to be checked.

10. Scuppers & their discharge pipe & valves below the freeboard deck checked for the corrosion/wastage.

11. Gangways & cargo ports below the freeboard or superstructure deck to be checked.

12. General condition of the hull, as far as could be seen.