Q. What are the ongoing developments at the IMO with respect to the technical and operational measures to be involved onboard ships for combining green house gas emissions from ships?


  • Mandatory measures to reduce the greenhouse gas from international shipping were adopted by parties to MARPOL Annex VI represented by MEPC of IMO
  • Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI, adding chapter 4 on energy efficiency
  • To make mandatory the EEDI for new ships of 400GT and above and SEEMP for all ships
  • To add new requirements for survey and certification including format for IAPP certificate and Issuance of EIAPP to engines of 130 Kw and above

Technical Measures:-

a. EEDI promotes use of more energy efficient and less polluting equipment and engine

b. Requires minimum energy efficiency level per capacity(tonne) nautical mile for different ship type and size

c. Expressed in grams of CO2 per capacity mile i.e gms CO2/Tonne NM

d. Smaller EEDI, more energy efficient

e. CO2 refers to total CO2 for combustion of fuel at design stage, including propulsion and aux engine taken into account carbon content of fuel into account. This does not take into account maneuvering , cargo loading /discharging etc, only voyage efficiency. Also not applicable to ships with Diesel Electric Propulsion , turbine Propulsion etc.

f. If some innovative technology or non-conventional source of energy is used, energy saved by this means will be deducted from total CO2 emission, based on energy efficiency of the system

g. Transport work is calculated by multiplying ship capacity as designed and ship design speed at max summer draft and load (usually 75% load or MCR)

h. EEDI = (CO2 emission)/ transport work

Operational Measures:-


b. Establishes a mechanism to assist shipping company and to improve the energy efficiency of the ship and operate it in a cost effective manner

c. Can be achieved by

  • Establishing a baseline: examine data, tools and process to determine a credible baseline from which goals, plan and action can grow
  • Identify improvement potential
  • Implement and monitor
  • Evaluate and update improvement initiative, follow up by responsible person with assessment for future improvement

d. IMO has set reduction for GHG in different phases:-

  • CO2 reduction by 10% in first phase and tighten every 5 years till 2025
  • Set reduction rate until 2025 to rate of 30%, i.e 10% reduction per 5 yr phase

Q. Discuss the significance of ballast water management systems onboard the ships operating in international waters with respect to the impact of ballast water on marine pollution.


Ballast water is used to maintain the stability and trim of the vessel and to ensure its structural integrity. It is normally pumped in as cargo is unloaded and is discharged when cargo loading is in progress.

1. Ballast water taken from one ecosystem and discharged into another ecological zone can introduce invasive (non native) aquatic organisms than can have harmful impact local biodiversity and health of local community.

2. IMO in 2004 introduced BWM conventionfor the purpose of controlling and managing effects of marine pollution due to ballast water using a ballast water management system (BWMS)

3. The significance of BWMS is to minimize the transfer of non-indigenous harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens form one area to another through ships ballast water system.

4. The BWMS for ships are mad in accordance with the following standards

a. Ballast water performance standard (Regulation D2)

b. Ballast water exchange standard (Regulation D1)

5. Following ballast water management methods are used under BWMS for controlling marine pollution.

6. Under BWMS all above mentioned methods are having their own advantages and disadvantages, but still capable and efficient enough to protect marine environment from harmful aquatic organisms and their immediate and lateral effects.

7. Under D1 ballast water exhchange standards efficiency of 95% volumetric exchange of ballast water can be achieved. With D2 ballast water performance standard discharge less than

a. 10 viable organisms / cub m >= 50 Micro M in minimum dimension

b. 10 viable organisms/ cub m < 50 micro m and >= 10 Micro m in minimum dimension can be achieved

8. Ballast water management systems must be approved by administration in accordance with IMO guidelines (Regulation D3- Approval requirements for BWMS)

9. To keep BWMS effective throughout the life of ship, IMO has given requirements for initial, renewal, annual, intermediate and certification requirements.

10. Also approved ballast water management plan (BWMP) and ballast water record book (BWRB) is also mandatory along with BWM certificate of compliance

11. Content of ballast water management plan (regulation B1)

The BWMP includes the following –

a. International rules and regulation for different port state control all over the world

b. Location of ports providing shore discharge facility of sediments and BW.

c. Duties of the personnel on board for carrying out ballast operation

d. Operational procedures onboard along with method to be used for ballasting

e. Sampling points and treatment methods should be given in BWMP

BWMP is prepared using BWMP generator app of various classification societies and is later approved by flag.