TYPES OF BOILER BURNERS

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  1. Pressure Jet Burner: This uses the pressure of the fuel oil to create atomization and a rotating spray. The fuel at the correct viscosity, flow through the centre passage of the burner, so the swirl plate where the pressure energy is converted into tangential velocity energy.
  2. Rotating Cup Burner: It uses the principle of centrifugal force to increase the velocity of the fuel and thus achieve atomization. The burner unit consists of a heat resistant steel cup, which is fixed to the end of a shaft that is rotated at high speed by an electric motor.
  3. Y-Type Burner: It atomizes the oil by spraying it into the path of a high velocity jet of steam or air. Either medium can be used, steam is usually more easily available and economical at sea.
  4. Steam Assisted Burner: In this type of burner, when running at full power, the burner operates as a pressure jet burner and steam and water consumption was kept to minimum.

Feature for efficient combustion of fuel are:

  • Flame has to be suspended
  • Combustion has to be stable
  • Fuel must be finely atomized over required range of output
  • Air supplied must be intimately mixed with fuel
  • Speed of travel of air and fuel should be same as that of propagation of flame
  • Air and fuel must enter the combustion space at the same rate as of combustion gases leaving the furnace
  • Time available for the largest drop of fuel must be sufficient for the combustion to complete before the droplet is cooled to a temp less than Its ignition temp.

The ratio of maximum to minimum oil throughput of the burner is called as turn down ratio.